Bone has two parts: compact bone is the outer layer of the bone whereas the soft, spongy, gelatinous tissue inside the medullary cavities (center) is known as bone marrow. Bone marrow is mainly located in the hip, thigh, bones of pelvis, sternum, ribs and vertebrae. There are two types of bone marrows: Red bone marrow also known as myeloid tissue and yellow bone marrow also known as fatty tissue.
We all require healthy bone marrow and blood cells to live. In case of disorders like blood cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, Thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, the bone marrow is affected and results in in-effective functioning of the bone marrow. Bone marrow transplant or cord blood transplant are the best known treatment options.
Bone marrow contains cells like: mononuclear cells, stromal cells, progenitor cells – stem cells like mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells. It produces billion of new RBCs – red blood cells every day along with blood platelets and white blood cells. There are many diseases which pose a threat to the activity of bone marrow and prevent it from turning stem cells into essential required cells.
Role of different cell types of BM-MNCs is evaluated and there are benefits of bone marrow mononuclear cells as given below:
- Nonfunctioning and diseased bone marrow is replaced with healthy functioning bone marrow.
- New immune system is regenerated which fights with existing or remaining leukemia or other cancers which might not get killed by the chemotherapy or radiation used in the transplant.
- Bone marrow is replaced thus normal functioning is restored after chemotherapy or radiation for treatment of malignant cancers.
- Bone marrow is replaced with genetically healthy functioning bone marrow in order to prevent further damage from a genetic disease process.
Clinical applications under investigation include following conditions:
- Diabetes Mellitus (Type I and Type II)
- Infertility Conditions
- Cancer such as leukemia
- Aplastic anemia
- Cancer treatment
- Autoimmune disease
- Liver Cirrhosis
- Perivascular Disease
- Cardiac disease
- Haemoglobinopathies such as Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anaemia
- Immunodificiencies disorders
- Inborn errors of metabolism
- Acute Myeloid and Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Myelodysplastic Syndrome
- Multiple Myeloma
There is an option by the clinicians and researchers to use either fresh bone marrow tissue, bone marrow mononuclear cells, or isolated cells.