Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic diseases when a patient suffers with high blood sugar levels. It occurs when the pancreas is not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body do not respond properly to the insulin being produced.

Symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are as below:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Presence of ketones in the urine
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections on gums or skin

There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:



Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is also known as Juvenile Diabetes as it often appears during childhood. The cause is pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This type of diabetes was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM). The cause of Type 1 DM is unknown and weight is not a factor here.







Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is also referred as “non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. It is a chronic condition and affects the way the body processes glucose (blood sugar). With the progression of the disease, a lack of insulin may also develop. It is believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of this condition but the main known cause for this condition is excess body weight and insufficient physical moment or exercise, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.


Gestational Diabetes – This is a condition when the high blood sugar affects some pregnant women. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain the pregnancy and these hormones make the cells of mother more resistant to insulin. In order to overcome this resistance, pancreas responds by producing enough insulin. Incase at times when pancreas cannot keep up with this, little glucose gets into the cells of the individual and too much stays in the blood which results in gestational diabetes. This can occur even if the pregnant women are without any previous history of diabetes.

Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar is higher than normal level but not high enough to be labelled as type 2 diabetes.

The following is a broader list of other causes of diabetes:

  • Genetic defects of β-cell function
  • Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
  • Exocrine pancreatic defects
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Infections
  • Drugs


Autologous bone marrow‑derived mononuclear cells transplantation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect on β‑cell function and insulin sensitivity pdf

Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cell With Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Established Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Open-Label Clinical Study to Assess Safety and Impact on Insulin Secretionpdf

Clinical efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysispdf

Potencial Role of Stem Cell Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellituspdf

Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trialpdf

Efficacy of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Mononuclear Cells Transplantation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Comparative Studypdf

Insulin Therapy in People With Type 2 Diabetes: Opportunities and Challenges?pdf

Stem Cell Therapies for Treating Diabetes: Progress and Remaining Challengespdf

Clinical Trials Worldwide Under Investigation