Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.
Source of stem cells are bone marrow, circulating (peripheral) blood and umbilical cord blood. The donor stem cells have the property of homing whereby they migrate to the patient’s bone marrow making healthy red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets to avoid infections, bleeding disorders and anemia.
Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (PBSC) is the preferred source for transplant as compared to bone marrow as harvesting of PBSC is less invasive and easy to perform.
TYPES OF TRANSPLANATATIONS
Autologous HSCT:- A type of transplant that uses the patient’s own stem cells.
Allogeneic HSCT:- A type of transplant where stem cells are collected from matching donor (with same HLA type) and transplanted into the patient.
Donor for allogenic HSCT include the following:
A parent/relativ: A haplo-identical match is when the donor is a parent and the genetic match is at least half identical to the recipient (one haploytpe).
Unrelated HSCT: The genetically matched stem cells are from an unrelated donor found through national/international bone marrow registries.